Happy Pioneer Day! By the beginning of 2000, there were 2,435 members in four districts and eighteen branches, and in 2005 there were 5,951. This covers known and unknown wagon trains from 1847 to 1868. According to church belief, God inspired Brigham Young (Joseph Smith's successor as church president) to call for the Saints (as church members call themselves) to organize and head West, beyond the western frontier of the United States (into what was then Mexico, though the U.S. Army had already captured Santa Fe de Nuevo México and the colonized parts of Alta California in late 1846). The provisions included two to three yoke of oxen, two milk cows, other livestock, arms and ammunition, 15 lb of iron, pulleys and ropes, fishing gear, farming and mechanical equipment, cooking equipment and at least 1000 pounds of flour plus assorted other foodstuffs. database from the LDS Church History Library containing a compilation of names obtained from rosters and other reliable sources of individuals who immigrated to Utah from 1847-1868 He urged the vanguard company to continue on to California but was unable to shift the leader's focus away from the Great Basin. On April 5, 1847, at 2 p.m., the wagon train moved west from Winter Quarters toward the Great Basin. Jefferson Hunt, senior Mormon officer of the Battalion, actively searched for settlement sites, minerals and other resources. Lds Church. They created irrigation systems, laid out farms, built houses, churches and schools. During the winter of 1846–47, Latter-day Saint leaders in Winter Quarters and Iowa laid plans for the migration of the large number of Saints, their equipment, and their livestock. The company traveled six days during the week, but generally stayed in camp on Sunday to observe the Sabbath. Handcarts cost less, and handcart … It is the most comprehensive list of Mormon immigrants and the wagon trains that brought them to Utah. Mormon historian B. H. Roberts noted in his work A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: On the announcement of the United States naval officer, who boarded the Brooklyn as she came to anchor, that the emigrants "were in the United States of America," three hearty cheers were given in reply... Three weeks previous to the arrival of the Saints, the United States flag had been raised and the country taken possession of in the name of the government which the flag represented.. The Mormon handcart movement began in 1856 and continued until 1860. In addition, as the discharged men traveled to rejoin their families in the Salt Lake Valley, they moved through southern Nevada and southern Utah. Brooklyn Place, in Chinatown, San Francisco, is named for the ship, as was the erstwhile Brooklyn, California. He reported to Young about his group's successful journey and their settlement in what is today San Francisco, California. Pratt wrote: ...we could not refrain from a shout of joy, which almost involuntarily escaped from our lips the moment this grand and lovely scenery was within our view. Saints: The Story of the Church of Jesus Christ in the Latter Days, Seth M. Blair/Edward Stevenson Company (1855), Soren Christoffersen Freight Train (1864), Jedediah M. Grant/Willard Snow Company (1847), Jedediah M. Grant/Joseph B. Noble Company (1847), Samuel Gully/Orson Spencer Company (1849), Horton D. Haight/Frederick Kesler Freight Train (1859), Levi W. Hancock/Jefferson Hunt/James Pace/Andrew Lytle Company (1847), John S. Higbee/James W. Bay Company (1852), Jonathan H. Holmes/Samuel Thompson Company (1848), Edward Hunter/Joseph Horne Company (1847), Jakeman and Shurtliff's Freight Train (1863), Henry Bryant Manning Jolley Company (1852), Kimball and Lawrence Freight Train (1860), Kimball and Lawrence Freight Train (1864), Kimball and Lawrence Freight Train (1862), Livingston and Kinkead Freight Train (1850), Livingston and Kinkead Freight Train (1851), Livingston and Kinkead Freight Train (1855), Amasa M. Lyman/Charles C. Rich Company (1857), Amasa M. Lyman/Charles C. Rich Company (1852), Benjamin Franklin Matthews Company (1856), Charles McCarty/William Appleby Company (1858), Daniel A. Miller/John W. Cooley Company (1853), Orson Pratt/Ezra T. Benson Company (1857), Orson Pratt/Ezra T. Benson/Ira Eldredge Company (1854), Jacob F. Secrist/Noah T. Guymon Company (1855), Marcus De Lafayette Shepherd Company (1848), Marcus De Lafayette Shepherd Company (1857), Abraham O. Smoot/George B. Wallace Company (1847), Abraham O. Smoot/Samuel Russell Company (1847), Hiram T. Spencer/John Y. Greene Freight Train (1859), Daniel Spencer/Ira Eldredge Company (1847), Orson Spencer/ Joel J. Terrell Company (1853), Daniel Spencer/Perrigrine Sessions Company (1847), Thomas S. Williams/Seth M. Blair Freight Train (1850), Wright-Godbe/George Stringham Freight Train (1861), Joseph W. Young/Ansil P. Harmon/Heber P. Kimball Company (1861).  Upon arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, the Mormons developed and cultivated the arid terrain to make it more suitable.  The Mormon handcart movement began in 1856 and continued until 1860. Planning a Trail Visit. Source: Vicky Burgess-Olson, Sister Saints. Credits: Research: Stephanie Pack Script: Stephanie Pack & Arianna Rees Animation & Design: Christopher Patty Narration: Benjamin Kiser It is the most comprehensive list of Mormon immigrants and the wagon trains that brought them to Utah. The experiment began in 1856 with the Edmund Ellsworth company and ended in 1860 with the Oscar Stoddard Company. The database now contains information on more than 61,000 pioneers and 384 wagon and handcart companies. Every year from 1847 until 1869, church members making this journey were formed into organized companies. Additionally, the "Pioneer" (characterized as "Pioneer Pete") is Lehi High School's mascot.  Religious freedom was written into the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1849. At the time of the planning of the exodus in 1846, the territory was owned by the Republic of Mexico, which soon after went to war with the United States over the annexation of Texas. Brigham Young is quoted as stating: "I say go [and] kill them... Tell Dimick Huntington to go and kill them—also Barney Ward—let the women and children live if they behave themselves... We have no peace until the men [are] killed off—never treat the Indian as your equal." [notes 1] Their trail along the north bank of the Platte River and North Platte River and over the continental divide climbing up to South Pass and Pacific Springs from Fort John along the valley of the Sweetwater River, then down to Fort Bridger and thence down to the Great Salt Lake became known as the Mormon Trail. Young continued to trust Kane throughout his own lifetime, particularly as an intermediary with the often hostile Federal government. The train contained 73 wagons, one cannon, 93 horses, 52 mules, 66 oxen, 19 cows, 17 dogs and some chickens, and carried enough supplies to fully provision the group for one year. The Star Valley Wyoming Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, located in Afton, Wyoming. Augusta Joyce Crocheron, a passenger on the ship Brooklyn, described the voyage: As for the pleasure of the trip, we met disappointment, for we once lay becalmed in the tropics, and at another time we were "hatched below" during a terrific storm. The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail is the 1,300-mile stretch the Mormon pioneers first crossed in 1847 from Nauvoo, Illinois, to the Great Salt Lake Valley. This part of the trail was used relatively little: mainly by Latter-day Saints fleeing Illinois in 1846, by some immigrants "jumping off" from Keokuk, Iowa, in 1853, and in 1856-1857 by seven handcart companies from Iowa City who entered the Mormon Trail at present-day Lewis, Cass County, Iowa. Given the needs of the large volume of Saints who would travel west, church leaders decided to avoid potential conflicts over grazing rights, water access and campsites. About LDS Pioneer and Handcart Companies, 1847-1856. Motivated to join their fellow Church members in Utah but lacking funds for full ox or horse teams, … Inspirational Quotes. The two scouts undertook a twelve-mile (19 km) exploratory circuit into the valley before returning to the larger party. Techniques for irrigating crops were investigated. In fall of 1852, Brigham Young commissioned Spencer to travel, together with Jacob Houtz, to Prussia. Due to the weather in the American heartland, the best time to travel was April–September. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 2. Interested persons can find ample sources for that information. Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, 1997. Over the course of two months, Brannan managed to recruit 70 men, 68 women, and 100 children—238 persons total. Although most of these emigrants paid their own expenses, the Church established the Perpetual Emigration Fundto provide financial assistance for poor emigrants to trek west, which they w…  The ship weighed 445 short tons (404 t) and measured 125 ft x 28 ft × 14 ft (8.5 m × 4.3 m) x 4.3 m) and was built in 1834 by Joseph H. Russell at Newcastle, Maine.. As more immigrants came, the church turned to … This was shortly followed by the Walker War.. The ship Brooklyn sailed from Brooklyn Harbor, New York, and traveled south across the Atlantic equator, around Cape Horn, stopping at the Juan Fernández Islands, then to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), finally docking in Yerba Buena (now San Francisco) on July 29, 1846, having made the sea voyage in five months and twenty-seven days. Mormon pioneers traveled by wagon, horse and even pushed handcarts. They discussed possible routes into the Salt Lake Valley, and the feasibility of viable settlements in the mountain valleys of the Great Basin. Each year during the Mormon migration, people continued to be organized into "companies", each company bearing the name of its leader. She and her husband joined the Mormons in 1834 and … He is no longer the CEO of the company, but during the almost decade he spent at the helm of the company, he was known to sit on the back row of his company’s planes, which had seats that didn’t recline, when traveling to demonstrate that serving the customer was more important that serving the … Furniture rolled back and forth endangering limb and life. The voyage is the longest passage made by a Mormon emigrant company. Denmark was one of those countries, with a large number of Mormon emigrants coming to Utah between 1850 and 1910. Quotes By Genres. One of the best-known and best-loved stories of the Mormon pioneers is the testimony of Francis Webster, a member of the Martin Handcart Company. A new route on the north side of the Platte River was chosen to avoid major interaction with travelers using the established Oregon Trail on the river's south side. Wells's Special Order No. Soon after the first Mormon pioneers reached Utah in 1847, the Church began encouraging its converts in the British Isles and elsewhere in Europe to emigrate to Utah. Church funds were also limited at this time, but church leaders provided what funding and other material assistance they could to families and companies which were undersupplied. The Mormon pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), also known as Latter-day Saints, who migrated in the mid-1840s across the United States from the Midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the U.S. state of Utah. Young later reported that he had seen the valley, including Ensign Peak, in a vision and recognized the spot. At this point, the now larger company took the established Oregon Trail toward the trading post at Ft. Bridger. "Trail of Hope: The Story of the Mormon Trail". About the same time, they were joined by thirteen more members of the sick detachment of the Mormon Battalion. This project covers all company commanders of the Mormon Pioneer migrations from 1847-1868) Finding Aids. Some camp members were assigned specific tasks. In 1846, religious tensions reached their peak, and in 1848 mobs burned the Latter-day Saint temple in Nauvoo. Harriet Page Young, wife of Lorenzo Young, was the first woman selected for the company. While at Fort Laramie, the vanguard company was joined by members of the Mormon Battalion who had been excused from service due to illness and sent to winter in Pueblo, Colorado. It was hoped that the group could, wherever possible, establish fords and ferries and plant crops for later harvest. Shortly after the first company arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, the community of Bountiful was established to the north. However, two companies left late and used green wood to make their wheels, which consequently broke down frequently. Alphabetical List of all Company Commander Names and Year of Departure. This database contains an index of names and other details for groups of Mormon pioneers who traveled to Utah primarily in handcart companies. Kane obtained permission for the Mormons to winter on Indian territory, and the site was originally called Kanesville. In 1856 the Mormon pioneers trekked across the Great Plains in wagon trains and pulling handcarts to find a new home safe from persecution. Box Elder, Cache, Salt Lake, Utah, and Sevier counties had large numbers of Danes listed in 19th Century Utah census totals but Sanpete County was the area where the largest number settled.. This is the Place Monument, This is the Place Heritage Park, Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Salt Lake City, Utah. The well-organized wagon train migration began in earnest in April 1847, and the period (including the flight from Missouri in 1838 to Nauvoo), known as the Mormon Exodus is, by convention among social scientists, traditionally assumed to have ended with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. The most famous of these are the Willie and the Martin handcart companies. This is the story of one 18-year-old young woman, Emma Girdlestone of the Willie Handcart Company, who faced starvation, frostbite, and death so she and her family could join their fellow Latter-day Saints in the Salt Lake Valley. The original Brigham Young-led pioneer company has a separate project page. Women and children were at night lashed to their berths, for in no other way could they keep in. The three women were joined by a larger group of women church members from Mississippi who merged with the main party at Laramie, Wyoming. Handcart follows Samuel Hunter (Jaelan Petrie) as he joins the company because of … The experiences of returning members of the Mormon Battalion were also important in establishing new communities. On one occasion, he chastised the camp's hunters for being wasteful of flesh ... killing more than was really needed. Apostle Orson Pratt was named the company's scientific observer. Leaving Iowa in July 1856, they did not reach Utah until November, suffering many deaths due to winter weather and the lack of adequate supplies. Take a look at interactive, … Tensions in Fort Utah mounted after Mormons murdered Old Bishop, and Young ordered an attack on Utes, called the Battle at Fort Utah. Justdial US provides local information on car rentals, pizzas, restaurants, hotels, doctors & more in US. Mormon pioneer wagon train. The waves swept the deck and even reached the staterooms... Children's voices were crying in the darkness, mother's voices soothing or scolding, men's voices rising above the others, all mingled with the distressing groans and cries of the sick for help, and, above all, the roaring of the wind and howling of the tempest made a scene and feeling indescribable.. The movement began in 1856 and continued until 1860. Young personally reviewed all available information on the Salt Lake Valley and the Great Basin, consulting with mountain men and trappers who traveled through Winter Quarters, and meeting with Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary familiar with the Great Basin. The initial company would select and break the primary trail with the expectation that later pioneers would maintain and improve it. Some companies, however, started late in the season which resulted in hardship and sometimes disaster. The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church) to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used handcarts to transport their belongings. Mormon history can be divided into three broad time periods: (1) the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, (2) a "pioneer era" under the leadership of Brigham Young and his successors, and (3) a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century. Along with the Danish translation of the Book of Mormon, this opened the area to great success in attaining converts. A third company arrived on October 2, with 320 people. The idea was that money could be saved in having pioneers use handcarts instead of wagons. In October 1845, as church members were preparing to leave Nauvoo, the Nauvoo Neighbor printed an extensive list of suggested provisions for each family wagon. It contains lists of passengers in companies as well as genealogical information about ancestors. Today a monument stands in the spot where he made this declaration. During the trip through the rugged mountains, the vanguard company divided into three sections. Demographic estimates place 1,611 pioneers in the valley of the Great Salt Lake during the winter of 1847. The wary Young insisted the Mormons should settle in a location no other colonizers wanted, and felt the Salt Lake Valley met that requirement but would provide the Saints with many advantages as well. The Salt Lake Valley became American territory as a result of this war. They had received conflicting advice, but Young chose to follow the trail used by the Donner-Reed party on their journey to California the previous year. Thousands of other Latter-day Saints crossed Iowa on variants of the 1846 route or on other trails, but … From 1849 to 1855, about 16,000 European Latter-day Saints traveled to the United States by ship, through the eastern states by rail, and to Utah by ox and wagon.  In some places, Mormons hold an event called "Pioneer Trek" for people who are ages fourteen to eighteen. Salt Lake City also has the "Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument," where Young, Eliza R. Snow, and other Mormon pioneers are buried and where a memorial exists dedicated to all who crossed the plains to the Salt Lake Valley. In late February, plans were made to gather portable boats, maps, scientific instruments, farm implements and seeds. Rigdon was released on a writ of habeas corpus and made his way to Illinois, where he joined the main body of Mormon refugees in 1839. He told Young that local Indians raised good crops, including corn and pumpkins, but that there was ever-present danger of frost. These and other reasons caused the body of the church to move from one place to another—to Ohio, Missouri, and then to Illinois, where they built the city of Nauvoo. With refreshing originality and a haunting rhythm to his prose, Williams reflects on the notion of space and seclusion both internally and externally.Williams also celebrates the landscape: its geology, flora and fauna, its people from the ancient Fremont to its Mormon pioneers, hiking aficionados and recluses such as Everett Ruess, and the controversial politics involved with the creation of Grand Staircase-Escalante … After crossing the Green River, several members of the party suffered from "mountain fever" (probably Colorado tick fever, which is carried by the Rocky Mountain wood tick).  Young himself became ill soon after meeting Goodyear. Latter-day Saint pioneers traveled to the Salt Lake Valley primarily by wagon train until the mid-1850s, when the need for a low-cost and more efficient mode of transportation persuaded Brigham Young to direct leaders to organize handcart companies. The sections on Mormon beliefs and motivations for going west have been omitted. The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to Salt Lake City, Utah, who used two-wheeled handcarts to transport their belongings. The passengers of the ship Brooklyn left the United States with the hope of finding religious freedom. This project is a sub project of the Mormon Pioneers (1847-1868) Master Project. Pioneer Companies that Crossed the Plains 1847-1868 . Apprehensive of possible danger posed by Native Americans, a militia and night guard was formed under the direction of Stephen Markham. Church members eventually headed south into present-day Arizona and Mexico, west into California, north into Idaho and Canada, and east into Wyoming, settling many communities in those areas. Read More. The footnotes, bibliography, maps, pictures, pioneer companies by name and dates for the 22-year period, and historic sites - about 2/3 of the book - have also been left out for space considerations. In November 1845, Samuel Brannan, newspaperman and small-scale publisher of the Mormon paper The Prophet (later the New York Messenger), was directed by church elders to charter a ship that would carry its passengers away from the eastern United States to California, which was then part of Mexico. In 1849, Tooele and Fort Utah in modern-day Provo were founded.  Ute chief Wakara suggested the pioneers instead move into the Sanpete Valley in central Utah, where they established the community of Manti. Where is this National Historic Trail? Alphabetical Company List. This and bad weather further delayed the already late pioneers. This impacted the resources and supplies each family could draw upon as they covered the more than 1,000 miles (2,000 km) to the Great Basin. Seizing the opportunity to both help future travelers and increase the cash available to the migration, nine men under the direction of Thomas Grover were left behind to construct and operate a ferry at that location. The source for this table is the … Women of the company also performed vital tasks along the way. This dangerous trek of nearly 24,000 miles (39,000 km) would claim 10 lives of the ship's 238 passengers, nine of whom were buried at sea. They go on a hike for a couple of days so they can experience what the pioneers had. The settlement of Provo was particularly troubling to the Utes, since it was at the heart of their territory. Not everyone could afford to transport a family by railroad, and the transcontinental railroad network only serviced limited main routes, so wagon train migrations to the far west continued sporadically until the 20th century. Spencer was the president of one of the five Mormon pioneer companies in 1849. It was here that Young first met Thomas L. Kane, a non-Mormon from Philadelphia with deep personal connections to the Polk administration. The sections on Mormon beliefs and motivations for going west have been omitted. Today the trail is a national landmark, and many of its way-stations … Twenty five percent of the total were children under the age of eight.. She was a member of the second pioneer company of 1847 and dominated female society in Utah until her death. With the afternoon start, they made three miles (5 km) and camped in a line a few hundred yards from a stand of timber. Mormon pioneers emigrated from many countries.  Camp was awakened by a bugle at 5 a.m. and the company was expected to be prepared for travel by 7 a.m.. Each day's travel ended at 8:30 p.m. and the camp was in bed by 9 p.m.. Journal records show that Young actively managed the journey, supervising details and occasionally giving reprimands when evening and Sunday recreation became rowdy or group members failed to complete their tasks. The … Learn more about where you can go, historic sites you can visit and more! Chosen members of the vanguard group were gathered together, final supplies were packed, and the group was organized into military companies. With Jaelan Petrie, Stephanie Albach, Chris Kendrick, Shannon Skinner.
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